Catherine de Baillon
Royal Connection Research Association
This web site is dedicated to reporting
on the Catherine Baillon Royal Connection Research Association. The
following information will be found here:
Many people of French-Canadian ancestry can claim descent from Catherine
de Baillon. She was the daughter of Alphonse de Baillon, écuyer,
and Louise de Marle. She was born around 1645, probably near Montfort-l'Amaury,
Île-de-France, outside of Paris. Her parents were members of the minor
French nobility. She came to New France around 1669 as a daughter
of the King (that is, an immigrant bride royal officials would send
over to the colony to marry a settler). She married Jacques Miville
dit Deschênes on 12 November 1669 at Québec City. Together they had
six children. Catherine died on 27 January 1688 at Rivière-Ouelle.
Catherine's lineage extends back to several other minor French nobility
families in the Paris region. However, by pushing these lines further
back it is possible to find connections to major French and European
noble households. There have been several attempts to trace her ancestry
back to royalty and to the Emperor Charlemagne in particular. René Jetté
published one such proposed lineage in his scholarly Traité de généalogie
in 1991. This lineage was through her mother's family, the de Marles,
and the key connection was to the Bournel de Thiembronne family. Jetté
published his findings with documentation based on the best information
available to him at that time. Soon after his book was published he
collaborated with Gail F. Moreau and John P. DuLong in the translation
of the crucial de Marle Livre de raison published in the American-Canadian
Genealogist in 1993.. Moreau and DuLong
also edited and translated "Archange Godbout's Baillon, de Marle,
and Le Sueur Families of France" in 1992. These works summarized the known facts and hypotheses regarding Catherine's ancestry.
We viewed proving Catherine's noble and possible royal lineage as an
important task because it would allow her many descendants, spread across
the United States and Canada, to trace their ancestry back to the Middle
In our books and articles we used Baillon rather than de Baillon because Catherine was not from a place called Baillon that was held as a seigneurie by her father. However, other authors, namely Ouimet and Mauger on one hand and Côté and Seni on the other hand, have made it clear that Catherine, her siblings, and her other relatives normally signed their names using de Baillon. While it is too late to go back and change our use of Baillon in our books and articles, it is possible to in general use the preferred de Baillon from now on on this website.
Ultimately, I think we should let Catherine have the final
word. Here is her digitally enhanced (because of the poor quality
photocopy I have) signature from her 19 October 1669 marriage contract
done before Pierre Duguet, notary (ANQ, reel no. 1710):
Jetté, Moreau, and DuLong were very concerned that the available evidence
relied too heavily on published works. They wanted to ground Catherine's
lineage on original documents. In 1992, they formed the De Marle Royal
Connection Research Association, which was subsequently renamed as the
Baillon Royal Connection Research Association in 1994. The purpose of
this Association was to band their resources together to pay for a professional
genealogist in France to verify the lineage through the Bournel de Thiembronne
line using original documents. After several years of research, we found
that we had to reject the Bournel de Thiembronne connection as being
chronologically unlikely. Consequently, we double our determination
and decided to expand our Association to the purpose of tracing any
potential royal connection for Catherine. In 1995, Roland-Yves Gagné
was added to the associates. He brings his valuable ability to read
ancient French and Flemish documents to the research team. In
1999, Joseph A. Dubé was added to the team because of the help he
gave us researching the Lascaris de Vintimlle gateway.
Our Association was never opened to the public. Membership was
by invitation only. However, we did accept financial contributions.
We would like to thank the following people for financially contributing
to our project: Betty (Champoux) Borgman, Harold R. Deschenes, George
W. McLaughlin, Ronald R. Niquette, Sue Rood, Elaine Smith, and Rev.
Jerome F. Weber. There support helped us complete our work and
we are grateful to them for believing in us.
After many years of difficult reassert, and the expense of thousands
of dollars, we have brought our Association to closure with the publication
of our findings in an article and in our book. We have been able
to trace Catherine de Baillon's ancestry back, generation-by-generation,
with accurate documentation and citations, to Charlemagne, the emperor
of the western Holy Roman Empire, through the Le Bouteillier-Gavre gateway,
and Theodoros II Dukas Lascaris, the emperor of the eastern Byzantine
Empire, though the Chabot-Lascaris de Vintimlle gateway.
Although we still maintain contact with one another, and keep abreast
of our various research projects, the Association is no longer officially
This web site will continue to be maintained to act as a clearinghouse
for information about Catherine de Baillon and further research done to
trace her ancestry. It is our hope that our research will inspire
others to extend her ancestry back further and to find other possible
royal gateways for her.
We are very proud of our publications two publications,
our articlewhich was also published
in Englishand our book. All our
research can be found in our book.
article summarizing the Le Bouteillier-Gavre gateway back to Charlemagne
and rejecting the previously held Bournel de Thiembronne gateway was
published in 1997. The full citation is:
René Jetté, John P. DuLong, Roland-Yves Gagné, and
Gail F. Moreau. "De Catherine Baillon à Charlemagne." Mémoires de la Société généalogique canadienne-française 48, no. 3 (Autumn 1997): 190-216.
You can still order copies of this article from the Société
généalogique canadienne-française (SGCF).
You can visit the SGCF web site or write them at:
|Société généalogique canadienne-française
3440, rue Davidson
Montréal, Québec H1W 2Z5
This article was translated into English and published
René Jetté, John P. DuLong, Roland-Yves Gagné, and Gail
F. Moreau. "From Catherine Baillon to Charlemagne." American-Canadian Genealogist 25, no. 4 (Fall 1999): 170-200.
This article is now available free to download from the American-Canadian Genealogical Society at their website. Just click on the title of the article or the cover of the issue.
It is important for you to understand that all of the
information published in our French article is also found in our book
with much more additional information.
book documenting the first twelve generations of Catherine Baillon's
ancestry has been published by the Société généalogique canadienne-française.
Here is the text René Jetté wrote for the back cover of
Catherine Baillon, fille du roi immigrée en Nouvelle-France, épouse
de Jacques Miville dit Deschênes en 1669. Sa table d'ascendance, poursuivie
ici jusqu'à la douzième génération, présente, preuves à l'appui, un
assortiment fascinant de nobles de robe et d'épée. Par le biais de
certaines alliances, Catherine Baillon descend même de maisons féodales,
royales et impériales du Moyen Âge.
En ce début du XXIe siècle, Catherine Baillon compte des
centaines de milliers de descendants au Québec, au Canada et aux États-Unis,
comme en témoignent la variété des lignes ascendantes qui composent
les huit premiers tableaux de l'introduction. Grâce à elle, tous ces
gens peuvent prétendre avoir quelques gouttes de sang bleu dans les
De plus, les Européens, les Français, en particulier, trouveront
dans la l'ascendance de Catherine Baillon plusieurs filiations nobiliaires
inédites. Ils découvriront aussi comment un nombre imposant
de Nord-Américains peuvent se dire, notamment, descendants de Charlemagne.
The full citation for the book is:
René Jetté, John Patrick DuLong, Roland-Yves Gagné, Gail F. Moreau,
and Joseph A. Dubé. Table d'ascendance de Catherine Baillon
(12 générations). Montréal: Société généalogique canadienne-française,
can visit the SGCF web site or write them at:
|Société généalogique canadienne-française
3440, rue Davidson
Montréal, Québec H1W 2Z5
To answer the inevitable question, the book is of course in French.
However, there is an introductory chapter in English explaining the
layout of the book and this should help you navigate the material.
There are over 200 pages, hundreds of notes, several detailed proofs,
illustrations, and three maps, and three appendixes. You will
find enough information about your ancestors to keep you busy for days
reading and analyzing the data. This book is the result of over
ten years of work on the part of five genealogists. We hope you
will enjoy reading our research as much as we enjoyed doing the work.
It is encouraging to see that other authors and researchers
are studying Catherine de Baillon and publishing their results. As
these works are released, I will make note of them here. I have also added some works that pre-date the publication of our book and articles. When an item is available online I have added a link to it, just click on the title or the part link.
Louis Pierre d'Hozier, Armorial général ou Registre de la noblesse de France. 2nd ed., 7 vols. in multiple parts (Paris: Firmin Didot frères, fils, et cie., 1868-1878), see vol. 7, part 2, pp. 65-70.
The Judge of Arms, Louis Pierre D'Hozier, reported on the Baillon family in this work first published around 1738. But when it came to Catherine de Baillon's father, Alphonse, he wrote: "Alphonse de Baillon, mort fans alliance." This of course is wrong and there are other details in the earlier generations that must be evaluated carefully. But this Baillon entry does place Catherine's family among the other great noble families of France.
P. Pacome, "Recherches généalogiques," Montréal, 1944.
This is a one page printed document I saw early on in my research.. It is a proposed lineage for Catherine de Baillon that extends not just to Charlemagne but all the way back to Marcomir and Woden! It goes through the Coucy family. It is of course terribly wrong and it should not be consulted. But it is interesting example of genealogical enthusiasm outpacing evidence in the search for a royal gateway for Catherine.
Archange Godbout, "Baillon, De Marle, [et] Lesueur." Mémoires de la
Société généalogique canadienne-française 1, no. 1 (January 1944): 37-43.
This is the first solid research published on Catherine de Baillon's immediate ancestry back in France.
Gentien Bimbenet, Une famille de la robe parisienne au XVI siècle : Les Baillon, Mémoire de Maîtrise préparé sous la direction de Monsieur le Professeur Jean Jacquart, Université Paris I, Année 1979-1980, p. 46.
This master's thesis can be found in the library of the Société généalogique canadienne française. I have not seen this work, but Yves Gagné has read it and cited it in his 2006 article "La Table d'ascendance de Catherine Baillon, cinq ans plus tard."
René Jetté, Traité de généalogie (Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1991).
Jetté first published a royal gateway for Catherine de Baillon in this work (see pp. 112-114
and 593-598). However, our research would later force us to reject this particular royal gateway through the Bournel de Thiembronne family.
Gail F. Moreau, trans., and John P. DuLong, ed. "Archange Godbout's Baillon, de Marle, and Le Sueur Families of France." Michigan's Habitant Heritage 13, no. 22 (April 1992): 40-51.
This is an English translation of Godbout's 1944 article.
Gail F. Moreau, trans. and ed., and John P. DuLong, ed., in collaboration with René Jetté. "The de Marle Livre de Raison: Gateway Document to a Royal Lineage." The American-Canadian Genealogist, 4 part series:
- Part I: The Louviers Manuscript as a Key to a Royal Pedigree, 19, no. 1 (Winter 1993): 4-8.
- Part II: The Louviers Manuscript, 19, no. 2 (Spring 1993): 42-45.
- Part III: Translation of the Louviers Manuscript, 19, no. 3 (Summer 1993): 116-125.
- Part IV: Evaluating the Manuscript, 19, no. 4 (Fall 1993): 153-158.
The Louviers manuscript was a handwritten notebook containing genealogical information about the de Marle family that was compiled by family members in the sixteenth century. When we wrote this series, we believed that the Bournel de Thiembronne gateway was still viable, though we were beginning to question it.
Jean-René Côté and Anita Seni. "La fortune
de Catherine de Baillon." Mémoires de la
Société généalogique canadienne-française 52, no.2 (Summer 2001): 123-144.
This is an excellent, well researched, and very well documented
article about Catherine Baillon's immediate family. It explains
the context of her decision to immigrate to New France.
Côté and Seni did a wonderful job and are to be congratulated. This article and the one they did in 2002 must be consulted by anyone wanting to learn more about Catherine and her family back in France.
Raymond Ouimet. "Catherine de Baillon
et ses origines." Mémoires de la Société
généalogique canadienne-française 52, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 105-106.
In this short article Ouimet corrects a misconception that Catherine
Baillon was born at Monfort-l'Amaury. She was probably born at or near her father's farm at La Mascotterie, in the parish of Lays (Yvelines).
Nicole Mauger and Raymond Ouimet. Catherine
de Baillon: enquête sur une fille du roi. Sillery,
QC: Les éditions du Septentrion, 2001.
Mauger and Ouimet publish there findings on the social origins
and family background of Catherine Baillon in this book.
It is available at the Septentrion web site. M. Ouimet has informed me that the version for sale now at Septentrion is actually a revised edition even though the publication year is still recorded as 2001. In my opinion, these authors make too many leaps of logic and twisting of evidence to suggest that Catherine had a notorious background and was forced to migrate to New France. I find Côté and Seni's work involving Catherine's reason for migrating much more convincing.
Roland-Yves Gagné and Paul Leportier. "L'ascendance
de Michel d'Aigneaux d'Ouville." Mémoires de la
Société généalogique canadienne-française 52, no. 2 (Summer 2001):
Catherine Baillon's Armenian ancestry is mentioned in this article.
Nicole Mauger and Raymond Ouimet. "Antoine de Baillon, écuyer du Duc de Verneuil, et sa famille: Antoine et Catherine de Baillon, un océan entre deux destins." Revue trimestrielle de la Société Archéologique, Historique et Géographique des Amis du Vieux Verneuil, 2002, 71 pages.
Jean-René Côté and Anita Seni. "Champlain,
les Chartier de Lotbinière et Catherine de Baillon ou l'avenir
est en Nouvelle-France." Mémoires de la Société généalogique
canadienne-française 52, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 11-37.
Raymond Ouimet and Nicole Mauger. "Catherine de Baillon: Une Exclue?" L'Ancêtre 29 (Autumn 2002): 23-30.
This is in part a rebuttal to the work of Côté and Seni. In general, Ouimet and Mauger believe that Catherine immigrated because she was excluded from her family probably for misbehavior. While Côté and Seni emphasize more that she was the daughter of an impoverished noble family with a network of friends associated with New France and her decision to migrate was based on her family situation, the opportunities New France offered, and not her alleged bad behavior.
Yves Drolet, "Les Ancêtres lointains de Catherine Baillon (à partir de la 13e génération)," 2003, available at http://genealogiequebec.info/images/20031005.pdf (27 February 2016).
A handy summary of Catherine's ancestry beyond the 12th generation. However, be aware that M. Drolet has not had a chance to update this file in some time and he acknowledges that it contains some mistakes and omissions. It does not incorporate new additions and corrections published since 2003.
You might also want to explore Catherine's ancestry at Leo van de Pas' genealogics website at http://www.genealogics.org/pedigree.php?personID=I00369606&tree=LEO (8 March 2016).
Raymond Ouimet and Nicole Mauger. "Catherine de Baillon, fille du roi en Amérique," available at http://www.histoire-genealogie.com/article.php3?id_article=350 (17 December 2005).
This is a few pages adapted from Mauger and Ouimet's Catherine de Baillon: enquête sur une fille du roi.
Roland-Yves Gagné. "La Table d'ascendance de Catherine Baillon, cinq ans plus tard." Mémoires de la Société généalogique
canadienne-française 57, no. 3 (Autumn 2006): 225-229.
Deals with Vaultier, Billebaut, Braque, de Marle, Le Sueur, Culdoe, des Landes, and Le Maistre ancestors of Catherine Baillon.
DuLong, John P. "Correction of Catherine Baillon's Grimaldi Ancestry." Michigan's Habitant Heritage 28, no. 2 (April 2007): 53-63.
DuLong, John P., and Jean Bunot. "Catherine de Baillon's de Roye Ancestry: Another Royal Gateway." Michigan's Habitant Heritage 30, no. 1 (January 2009): 5-18.
Caron, François, "Des châtelains de Saint-Omer à Céline Dion: Ou Catherine de Baillon: Un trait d'union entre Artois et Amérique." L'Oreiller du Roy 3 (June 2009): 42-66, available online at http://www.morinie.com/Oreiller_3.pdf (15 February 2016).
This article follows the possible Bréauté lineage and also shows several ways Catherine de Baillon descends from Guillaume I de St-Omer. This does not really provide any new evidence of the relationship between Roger Bréauté and Guy I Le Bouteillier. For a better discussion of the plausibility of this connection and another royal gateway for Catherine de Baillon back to Louis VI, King of France, please see the posting of Jean Bunot, "Le Bouteiller (Baillon) new royal gateway," soc.genealogy.medieval, 1 Dec. 2004.
DuLong, John P. "The Dudzeele and Straten Ancestry of Catherine de Baillon." Michigan's Habitant Heritage, two part series:
- The Dudzeele and Straten Ancestry of Catherine de Baillon, Part 1: 32, no. 3 (July 2011): 116-122.
- The Dudzeele and Straten Ancestry of Catherine de Baillon, Part 2: 32, no. 4 (October 2011): 156-166.
Roland-Yves Gagné. "Notule généalogique: Isabeau de Hutenay, fille de Thomas Whitney, ancêtre de Catherine de Baillon." Mémoires de la Société généalogique
canadienne-française 62, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 119-120.
Luc-Normand Tellier, “Dictionnaire des ancêtres de Catherine de Baillon et d’Anne Le Neuf du Herisson.” Montréal: Éditions Stellio, 2013. Available on CD-ROM from the author at http://www.genealogie.org/famille/tellier/tellier/DICTIONNAIRES_DES_ANCETRES.html (8 March 2016).
M. Tellier published a short work of 42 pages entitled “Généalogie de Catherine de Baillon” in 1990. I believe this expanded work of 1,151 pages is in part based on his earlier publication which I have not seen. In this CD-ROM product he has collected 3,564 ancestors for Catherine de Baillon and Anne Le Neuf du Herisson. This work has to be used with caution. In general, the author does not cite his sources. He provides a short two page bibliography at the end, but it is not sufficient. He clings to lineages that other researchers have rejected, for example the Bournel de Thiembronne royal gateway for Baillon, or he accepts other lineages that were suggested as speculative, but not verified, for instance, the Esneval lineage for Le Neuf. Furthermore, he has devised a unique method for recording genealogical information that is unnecessarily complex and not helpful. M. Tellier has also published a book, Le papyrus: Sur les traces de nos ancêtres qui ont fait l’Occident in 2013 which is a mixture of fiction, genealogical facts, and some shaky speculations regarding possible ancient lineages back to Ramses I, Pharaoh of Eygpt.
Regarding the Bournel de Thiembronne royal gateway that Jetté et al. failed to find sufficient evidence for and in fact found contradictory evidence, M. Tellier believes it is true because of reference to the prestigious Melun family he found in dossier 11489 of the Hozier Dossier Blues, vol. 429, of the Cabinet des titres. However, Jetté carefully reviewed the evidence in this dossier and did not find this Melun mention significant. This dossier does indeed mention that Melun family, but this entry refers to Ferry de Marle's relationship to the Meluns. Ferry is a cousin of Jean de Marle and not an ancestor of Catherine de Baillon. The relevant part of this dossier was transcribed, word for word, by Mme. Provence, an accomlished professional genealogist, and it is clear that the reference to the Melun family does not involve Jean de Marle. Furthermore, M. Tellier gives the reader the impression that Jetté et al. rejected the Bournel de Thiembronne royal gateway because of a tight chronology. While they did mention that the chronology was unlikely, but not impossible, their rejection is based on the fact that they found a contemporary Jean de Thiembronne who was distinct from Jean Bournel, seigneur de Theimbronne. Lastly, there was a total lack of mention of the very prestigious Cröy and Monchy families in documents involving Catherine de Baillon’s de Marle ancestors. The de Marles were not shy when it came to name dropping so this lack of a mention of these important families is important.
Jean-René Côté and Anita Seni. "Catherine de Baillon's Emigration to New France: The Key Role Played by Louis-Théandre Chartier. American-Canadian Genealogist43, no.1 (2017): 13-25.
This is a partial translation of their "Champlain,
les Chartier de Lotbinière et Catherine de Baillon ou l'avenir
est en Nouvelle-France" article. These authors do a great job showing how Catherine's decision to migrate to New France was influenced by Louis-Théandre Chartier, sieur of Lotbinière. Unlike Ouimet and Mauger they do not believe that Catherine was a naughty young woman forced to migrate, but rather she chose to do so based on her social position and family contacts.
Georges Sarrazin. "Les ancêtres de Catherine de Baillon (1645-1688)." Capedia, 15 March 2017. Available at https://www.capedia.fr/Les_anc%C3%AAtres_de_Catherine_de_BAILLON_[1645-1688].pdf (6 April 2018).
This is another compilation of Catherine de Baillon’s ancestry that should not be trusted. It lacks citations or even a bibliography. The arms presented in this work often vary from what is found in other more reliable sources, for example, the Maillard and Le Bouteillier arms are simply wrong. Like M. Tellier’s work, M. Sarrazin relies on the disproven Bournel de Theimbronne lineage. Use with extreme caution and verify anything you find of interest.
Gilles Brassard, "44. Catherine de Baillon et ses ancêtres le Sueur," available at https://conversationsancetres.wordpress.com/2018/12/08/44-catherine-de-baillon-et-ses-ancetres-le-sueur (accessed 26 January 2019).
This article extends what is known about the Le Sueur ancestry of Catherine de Baillon. It is well documented.
gueules à une tête de léopard d'or, baillonné de trois annelets de même [On a red field the head of a leopard of gold, muzzled by three small
rings of the same metal]. Often only one ring is shown in depictions of
the Baillon arms, that is, De gueules à tête de léopard d'or, bouclée du même. A colored illustration of the arms can be found in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Cabinet des Titres, Armorial général, Paris mss. vol. 4, p. 33, ca. 1696.
the arms recorded for Marie Rathier, widow of François de Baillon, écuyer,
seigneur de la Brentonnière. She had been married to Catherine's
distant cousin. There is also a black and white example of the arms in Louis-Pierre
d'Hozier and Antoine-Marie d'Hozier's Armorial général de la France,
13 vols. (Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1738-1908), vol. 7, part 1, p. 65. Lastly, there is a fine modern rendering of the Baillon arms, showing three
rings, in Dictionnaire national des Canadiens français (1608-1760) (3 vols. Rev. ed. Montréal: Institut généalogique Drouin,  1975)
vol. 3, p. 1370.
In the course of our research
on Catherine's ancestry, we have uncovered hundreds of ancestral arms. We were careful to record the blazon for each of these family arms in
our book. Please view the Baillon Armorial to see drawings of the ancestral arms of Catherine Baillon.
For your pleasure I am also presenting here Catherine de Baillon's royal gateways to the King of France and to the Emperor of Byzantium illustrated with the arms for each generation:
Should you have any general questions regarding this Association and
their work please contact John P. DuLong. Please understand that we
can not answer detailed specific questions regarding our project. You
will to review our publications for answers.
This page, and all contents, are Copyright
© 1995 by John P. DuLong and associates, Berkley, MI. Created 23 November
1995. Modified 25 January 2019. The heraldry art work on this web page was accomplished using Adobe Illustrator CS and Armorial Gold Heraldry Clip Art.